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12.03.2009
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Technologies

Optics and ceramics

By the end of the eightieth years of the XX-th century Russia was one of the largest manufacturers of raw materials and products of ceramics. The ceramic industry was self-sufficient, providing the country with the necessary nomenclature of production. Successes of scientists were rather impressing also with their developments of world priority.

Nowadays in many branches of a science and techniques various kinds of ceramics are used which are polycrystalline materials. Ceramics is received by sintering natural clays, their mixtures with various mineral additives, and also some metal oxides and oxygen-free refractory joints.

Optical crystals or amorphous materials are used for drive or transformation of light to various sites of a spectral range. There are some classifications of optical materials: by structure, properties, functional purpose, reception mode. Some of them are related to a separate class of so-called optical ceramics which is applied as IR-windows. If the ceramics passes infra-red (IR) beams which are thermal and introduce a small part of all the spectrum of electromagnetic waves, it is said to be optical transparent in the IR-spectrum. Thermal or IR-beams in a scale of electromagnetic waves settle down just behind the red edge of a visible spectrum, about 0,7 microns.

That range of lengths of waves which the ceramics is capable to pass, is called - a window of a transparency and is one of the major characteristics of an optical material, and the material itself is called the IR-window. Therefore for reception of ceramics with the set properties the further development of chemical methods of preparation of powders which are active to sintering, and also methods of their pressing in pottery are required.

Nanotechnologies

The basic problem in nanoindustry for today is steered mecahnosynthesis. For maintenance mecahnosynthesis it is necessary nanomanipulator. For today similar manipulators do not exist. Procedure of objects assembly from molecules because of interface «a man – the computer – the manipulator» presence cannot be automated at nanolevel. As soon as the system «nanocomputer – nanomanipulator» (experts predict it in 2010-2020) is received programmed making of another complex will be possible – it will assemble the analogue under the set program, without direct intervention of a man. Steered nanomanipulator – one of the most demanded things in nanotechnology. On the basis of system «nanocomputer – nanomanipulator» it will be possible to create automated assembly complexes, capable to assemble any macroscopical objects according to three-dimensional grid of atoms arrangement removed or developed in advance.

It will allow to abolish a complex of factories working now by means of "volume" technology, it will enough to design any product in the computerised system – and it will be assembled and multiplied by an assembly complex. Due to replication it will be possible to allocate separate products with this property, for example, nanorobots. Due to nanotechnologies the process of cars and gears designing will essentially change – many parts will become simpler owing to new technologies of the assembly, many become unnecessary. It will allow to design cars and the gears that were inaccessible before to the person in the absence of assembly and designing technologies. These gears will consist, as a matter of fact, of one very difficult detail. With the help of mechanoelectrical nanotransformer it will be possible to transform any kinds of energy with bigger EFFICIENCY and to create effective devices for reception of the electric power from sunlight. Recycling of waste and the global control systems «recycling» will allow to increase raw stocks of mankind. There is possible a global ecological control, the weather control thanks to system of co-operating nanorobots, working synchronously. Biotechnologies and the computer technics, possibly, will receive further development due to nanotechnologies. With the development of nanomedcine robots it will be even possible to make human life longer.

Education and researches
  1. Development of the system for multilevel preparation of experts and scientific shots at the expense of fundamental nature, qualities, a continuity and continuity of science and education, unity of training, researches and education, integration into world educational and scientific community.
  2. Realisation of innovative activity in metallurgy and materials technology at the expense of fundamental and applied researches of world level, use of results of innovative activity for development of system of multilevel preparation of experts and scientific shots.
  3. Development of multilevel system of a professional training and scientific employees on the basis of modernisation of laboratory and experimental base, introduction of new educational programs, forms and training methods.
  4. Creation of system of organizational-methodical support of innovative educational programs.
  5. Concentration of resources on priority scientifically-educational programs.
  6. Development of pedagogical and scientific potential of university at the expense of deepening fundamental and applied researches, personnel development.
  7. Development of forms and interaction methods, deepening of long-term communications with strategic partners in Russian and world academic, scientific and community business in educational and scientific and technical activity.
  8. Priority development of cooperation in a sphere of education and scientific and technical activity with the CIS countries.
  9. Control system perfection.
Machine-tool construction

In Russia, despite some growth of industrial production, situation in machine-tool branch remains difficult. In 2006 Open Society «Savelovsky machine works», Open Society "Tyajstankogidropress" have finished the volume of output almost to 800 million roubles every. Open Society “Sterlitamak-MTE” has exhausted more than 1010 machine tools and today is the leader by quantity of the exhausted processing centres. Leading machine-tool constructing factories, using a modular principle, the industrial cooperation, the automated designing, annually update the grocery rulers innovative workings out. For the last year Open Society «Sterlitamak-MTE» Open Society «Red proletarian», Open Society «Savelovsky machine works», Open Society «Ryazan machine-tool constructing factory» have mastered release of the advanced, high-efficiency high technology machine tools and the processing centres. Everything could be seen at exhibitions "Metal working". In Russia there are about 40 enterprises producing engines. Among them seven enterprises-finalists. And engines made by them concede to world samples practically by all characteristics, today: on a resource, on fuel consumption, on sound level and ecological compatibility. The engines which are exhausted for passenger and transport aircraft have the most considerable backlog.

Thermoissue and thermoissuing elements

SIC "Lutch" has long-term experience on working out of various types of electrogenerating ports (EGP) with nuclear and non-nuclear heating: one- and multielement EGP nuclear thermoissue power installations, flat and cylindrical TIP with solar heating, with internal and external heating of the emitter. The design of one- and multielement EGP is based on highly effective technological developments, unique materials and the technologies developed in SIC "Lutch". Creation of thermoissue converters of the energy possessing high efficiency and long-time work, became possible only after development of some new materials and technologie. Use of the created materials and technologies in other areas of technics can be rather effective: electronics, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, atomic engineering, metallurgy, rocket production, medicine.

Thermoissuing elements of new generation.

Within the limits of the Complex program on development and creation of active zones of reactors VVER of the raised safety with cermet fuel in SIC "Lutch" experimental researches of perspective variant of membranate thermoissuing element on the basis of cermet fuel with matrix structure are spent. Such fuel is characterized by:

  • absence of direct contact pieces between fuel particles thanking their equal distribution in metal matrix; the last is reached by use of the spherical fuel particles preliminary covered with a material of a matrix, and their isostatic pressing in centre hubs;
  • a low fission outcome of products in a heat-carrier circuit at infringement of leakproofness of mantle;
  • the raised radiating firmness and geometrical stability.